Abe, A. 1999. “Distribution of 1, 4-dioxane in relation to possible sources in the water environment.” Science of the total environment 227 (1):41-47.
Abraham, Michael H., Joelle Le, William E. Acree, Peter W. Carr, and Andrew J. Dallas. 2001. “The Solubility of Gases and Vapours in Dry Octan-1-Ol at 298 K.” Chemosphere 44 (4):855-863. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00288-5.
Abraham, Tonson, Vikas Bery, and Arvind P. Kudchadker. 1971. “Densities of some organic substances.” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 16 (16):355-356. doi: 10.1021/je60050a010.
AC. 1987. Material Safety Data Sheet for FM 47 identification lacquer, 8% solids. Wayne, NY: American Cyanamid.
ACGIH. 1971. “Dioxane. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed.” American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists: 94
ACS. 2019. “Molecule of the Week-1,4-Dioxane.” American Chemical Society.
Adams, Craig D., Patricia A. Scanlan, and Neal D. Secrist. 1994. “Oxidation and Biodegradability Enhancement of 1,4-Dioxane Using Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone.” Environmental Science & Technology Letters 28 (11):1812-1818. doi: 10.1021/es00060a010.
Adamson, D.T., R.H. Anderson, S. Mahendra, and C.J. Newell. 2015. “Evidence of 1,4-Dioxane Attenuation at Groundwater Sites Contaminated with Chlorinated Solvents and 1,4-Dioxane.” Environmental Science & Technology 49 (11):6510-6518.
Adamson, D.T., Charles J. Newell, Shaily Mahendra, Daniel Bryant, and Michael Wong. 2017. “In Situ Treatment and Management Strategies for 1,4-DioxaneContaminated Groundwater.” SERDP Project ER-2307.
Adamson, D.T., E.A. Piña, A.E. Cartwright, S.R. Rauch, R.H. Anderson, T. Mohr, and J.A. Connor. 2017. “1,4-Dioxane drinking water occurrence data from the third unregulated contaminant monitoring rule.” Science of the Total Environment 596:236-245.
Adamson, David T., Phillip C. de Blanc, Shahla K. Farhat, and Charles J. Newell. 2016. “Implications of Matrix Diffusion on 1,4-Dioxane Persistence at Contaminated Groundwater Sites.” Science of The Total Environment 562 (August):98–107.
Adamson, David T., Shaily Mahendra, Kenneth L. Walker Jr., Sharon R. Rauch, Shayak Sengupta, and Charles J. Newell. 2014a. “A Multisite Survey to Identify the Scale of the 1,4-Dioxane Problem at Contaminated Groundwater Sites.” Environmental Science & Technology Letters 1 (5):254–258.
Adamson, David T., Shaily Mahendra, Kenneth L. Walker Jr., Sharon R. Rauch, Shayak Sengupta, and Charles J. Newell. 2014b. “A Multisite Survey to Identify the Scale of the 1,4-Dioxane Problem at Contaminated Groundwater Sites.” Environmental Science & Technology Letters 1 (May):254–258.
ADEQ. 2012. Air Force Plant 44 Site Report. edited by Arizona Department of Environmental Quality.
Aitchison, Eric W., Sara L. Kelley, Pedro J. J. Alvarez, and Jerald L. Schnoor. 2000. “Phytoremediation of 1,4-Dioxane by Hybrid Poplar Trees.” Water Environment Research 72 (May/June):313–321.
Alvarez-Cohen, L., and G.E. Speitel. 2001. “Kinetics of Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Solvents.” Biodegradation 12 (2):105-126.
Amoore, John E., and Earl Hautala. 1983. “Odor as an aid to chemical safety: Odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution.” 3 (6):272-290. doi: 10.1002/jat.2550030603.
Andaluri, G., and R. Suri. 2017. “Removal of 1,4-Dioxane and Volatile Organic Compounds from Groundwater Using Ozone-Based Advanced Oxidation Process.” Ozone: Science & Engineering 39 (6):423-434. doi: 10.1080/01919512.2017.1327802.
Anderson, Richard H., Janet K. Anderson, and Paul A. Bower. 2012. “Co‐occurrence of 1, 4‐Dioxane with Trichloroethylene in Chlorinated Solvent Groundwater Plumes at US Air Force Installations: Fact or Fiction.” Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 8 (4):731–737.
APHL. 2016. Guidance for State Medical Cannabis Testing Programs. In Accessed February 6, 2020. https://www.aphl.org/aboutAPHL/publications/Documents/EH-Guide-State-Med-Cannabis-052016.pdf: Association of Public Health Laboratories
Archer, Wesley L., and Violete L. Stevens. 1977. “Comparison of Chlorinated Aliphatic, Aromatic, and Oxygenated Hydrocarbons as Solvents.” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, Product Research and Development 16 (4):319–326.
Argus, M.F., R.S. Sohal, G.M. Bryant, C. Hoch-Ligeti, and J.C. Arcos. 1973. “Dose-response and ultrastructural alterations in dioxane carcinogenesis. Influence of methylcholanthrene on acute toxicity.” Eur J Cancer 9:237-243. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-2964(73)90088-1.
Arve, P. . 2015. Microcosm Study of 1,4-Dioxane Biotransformation. Clemson University.
Astbury. 2004. “Hazards XVIII: Process Safety, Sharing Best Practice, Symposium Series 150.”
Atkins, PW. 1986. Physical Chemistry. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Atkinson, Roger. 1989. “Kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reactions of the hydroxyl radical with organic compounds.” Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data Monography No. 1:1-247.
ATSDR. 2005. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual (Update). Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry
ATSDR. 2012. Toxicological Profile for 1,4 Dioxane. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Bagheri, M., K. Al-jabery, D. Wunsch, and J. Burken. 2019. “A deeper look at plant uptake of environmental contaminants using intelligent approaches.” Science of the Total Environment 651:561-569.
Banerjee, M, and RS Konar. 1984. “Comment on the Paper ‘Polymerization of Acrylonitrile Initiated by K2S2O8-Fe(II) Redox System.” Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry 22:1193–95.
Banerjee, Sujit, Philip H. Howard, and Sheldon S. Lande. 1990. “General structure-vapor pressure relationships for organics.” Chemosphere 21 (10):1173-1180. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(90)90138-J.
Barajas-Rodriguez, FJ. 2016. “Evaluation of 1,4-Dioxane Biodegradation Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions.” Doctoral dissertation, Clemson University.
Barajas-Rodriguez, FJ, and DL Freedman. 2018. “Aerobic Biodegradation Kinetics for 1,4-Dioxane under Metabolic and Cometabolic Conditions.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 350 (May):180-188. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.02.030.
Barajas-Rodriguez, FJ, LC Murdoch, RW Falta, and DL Freedman. 2019. “Simulation of in situ biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane under metabolic and cometabolic conditions.” Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 223:Article 103464.
Barndõk, H., D. Hermosilla, L. Cortijo, E. Torres, and Á. Blanco. 2014. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:5701–5712 doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2483-2.
Barndõk, Helen, Luis Cortijo, Daphne Hermosilla, Carlos Negro, and Ángeles Blanco. 2014. “Removal of 1,4-dioxane from industrial wastewaters: Routes of decomposition under different operational conditions to determine the ozone oxidation capacity.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 280:340-347. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.07.077.
Barone, F.S., R.K. Rowe, and R.M. Quigley. 1992. “A laboratory estimation of diffusion and adsorption coefficients for several volatile organics in a natural clayey soil.” Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 10 (3):225-250. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-7722(92)90062-J.
BCC. 2002. “Process Makes Purer Plastics Retardant – Business Communications Company.” Flame Retardancy News 12 (8):1.
Begley, J.F., M. Czarnecki, S. Kemen, A. Verardo, A.K. Robb, S. Fogel, and G.S. Begley. 2012. “Oxygen and ethene biostimulation for a persistent dilute vinyl chloride plume.” Groundwater. Monit. Remed. 32:99-105.
Bell, C., S. Sager, S. Offenberger, and N. Forsberg. 2019. “Vapor Intrusion of 1,4-Dioxane? Regulatory Myth or Real Issue?” The Fifth International Symposium on Bioremediation and Sustainable Environmental Technologies, Baltimore, MD, April 18, 2019.
Bell, Caitlin H., and Norman D. Forsberg. 2019. “1,4-Dioxane.” In Emerging Contaminants Handbook, edited by Margaret Gentile Caitlin H. Bell, Erica Kalve, Ian Ross, John Horst and Suthan Suthersan, 27-84. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; Taylor Francis Group.
Bell, Caitlin, Jeff McDonough, Kelly S. Houston, and Kathleen Gerber. 2016. “Stable Isotope Probing to Confirm Field-Scale Cometabolic Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane.” Remediation Journal , 27 (December):47–59. doi: 10.1002/rem.21496.
Bennett, P.J., M. Hyman, C.A. Smith, H.E. Mugammar, M-Y.J Chu, M. Nickelsen, and R. Aravena. 2018. “Enrichment with carbon-13 and deuterium during monooxygenase-mediated biodegradation of 1, 4-dioxane.” Environmental Science & Technology Letters 5 (3):148-153. doi: 10.1021/acxs.estlett.7b00565.
Bevan, R.J., and P.T.C. Harrison. 2017. “Threshold and non-threshold chemical carcinogens: A survey of the present regulatory landscape.” Reg Tox Pharmacol 88:291-302.
Blotevogel, Jens, Charles Pijls, Bert Scheffer, Jean-Paul de Waele, Amy Lee, Reggy van Poecke, Nicolaas van Belzen, and Wim Staal. 2019. “Pilot-Scale Electrochemical Treatment of a 1,4-Dioxane Source Zone.” Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation 39 (1):36-42. doi: 10.1111/gwmr.12307.
Bock, C., R.M. Kroppenstedt, and H. Diekmann. 1996. “Degradation and bioconversion of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by Rhodococccus ruber 219.” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 45:408-410. doi: 10.1007/s002530050704.
Bogen, K.T. 2016. “Linear-no-threshold default assumptions for noncancer and nongenotoxic cancer risks: A mathematical and biological critique.” Risk Analysis 36:589-604.
Bower, Kevin C., and Christopher M. Miller. 2002. “Filter Sand-Phosphate Buffer Effect on 2,4-Dinitrotoluene Ozonation.” 128 (2):131-136. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2002).
Bray, George A. 1960. “A Simple Efficient Liquid Scintillator for Counting Aqueous Solutions in a Liquid Scintillation Counter.” Analytical Biochemistry 1 (4-5):279–285.
BUA. 1991. 1,4-Dioxane, BUA Report 80. In German Chemical Society, Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance, Beratergremium für Umweltrelevante Altstoffe. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft: Beratergremium für Umweltrelevante Altstoffe.
Burback, B.L., and J.J. Perry. 1993. “Biodegradation and biotransformation of groundwater pollutant mixtures by Mycobacterium vaccae.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59:1025-1029.
Byström, Katarina, and Margret Månsson. 1982. “Enthalpies of formation of some cyclic 1,3- and 1,4-di- and poly-ethers: thermochemical strain in the –O–C–O– and –O–C–C–O– group.” Journal of the Chemical Society 2 (5):565-569. doi: 10.1039/P29820000565.
Calabrese, E.J. 2019. “The linear no-threshold (LNT) dose response model: A comprehensive assessment of its historical and scientific foundations.” Chemico-Biol Interact 301:6-25
California State Senate. 2017a. Cleaning Product Right to Know Act. Senate Bill 258
California. 2017b. Waste Discharge Requirements and Water Recycling Requirements
for the Pure Water Monterey Advanced Water Purification Facility and Groundwater Replenishment Project Issued to Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control Agency. edited by California Water Boards. https://www.waterboards.ca.gov/centralcoast/board_decisions/adopted_orders/2017/monterey_pure/pwm_order_and_mrp.pdf: Accessed February 6, 2020.
California. 2018. Water Quality Control Policy for Recycled Water. edited by California Water Boards. https://www.waterboards.ca.gov/board_decisions/adopted_orders/resolutions/2018/121118_7_final_amendment_oal.pdf: Accessed February 6, 2020.
CAOEHHA. 2013a. Acute, 8-hour and Chronic Reference Exposure Level (REL) Summary. https://oehha.ca.gov/air/general-info/oehha-acute-8-hour-and-chronic-reference-exposure-level-rel-summary California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.
Proposition 65 No Significant Risk Levels for Carcinogens and Maximum Allowable Dose Levels for Chemicals Causing Reproductive Toxicity.
CAOSHA. 2017. Table AC-1, Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs), in California Code of Regulations (CCR) Title 8 Section 5155. http://www.dir.ca.gov/title8/5155table_ac1.html: California Division of Occupational Safety and Health.
Cappelletti, M., A. Presentato, G. Milazzo, R.J. Turner, S. Fedi, D. Frascari, and D. Zannoni. 2015. “Growth of Rhodococcus sp. Strain BCp1 on gaseous n-alkanes: New metabolic insights and transcriptional analysis of two soluble di-iron monooxygenase genes.” Frontiers in Microbiology 6:393. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00393.
CCE. 2019. Shopping Safe: The 2019 Consumer Shopping Guide. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5b72eb5b8ab7222baffc8dbb/t/5c9a8745ee6eb01dd7c77d5e/1553631051532/FINAL319_+The+2019+Consumer+Shopping+Guide+.pdf Citizens Campaign for the Environment.
CDC. 2018. Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Updated Tables. edited by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Washington, DC: Center for Disease Control.
Chang, B. . 1999. Spray-type insecticidal paint and manufacturing process thereof. Seoul, Korea: Kukbo Pharma Co., Ltd.
Chapman, S. W., and B. L. Parker. 2005. “Plume persistence due to aquitard back diffusion following dense nonaqueous phase liquid source removal or isolation.” Water Resource 41 (W12411). doi: doi:10.1029/2005WR004224.
Chen, Dong-Zhi, Xiao-Jun Jin, Jing Chen, Jie-Xu Ye, Ning-Xin Jiang, and Jian-Meng Chen. 2016. “Intermediates and Substrate Interaction of 1,4-Dioxane Degradation by Effective Metabolizer Xanthobacter Favus DT8.” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 106 (January ):133–140. doi: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.09.018.
Chiang, S-Y.D., R. Mora, W.H. Diguiseppi, G. Davis, K. Sublette, P. Gedalanga, and S. Mahendra. 2012. “Characterizing the Intrinsic Bioremediation Potential of 1,4-Dioxane and Trichloroethene Using Innovative Environmental Diagnostic Tools.” Journal of Environmental Monitoring. doi: 10.1039/c2em30358b.
Chiang, Sheau‐Yun [Dora], Richard [Hunter] Anderson, Michael Wilken, and Claudia Walecka‐Hutchison. 2016. “Practical Perspectives of 1, 4‐Dioxane Investigation and Remediation.” Remediation Journal 21 (1):7–27.
Chou, J.T., and P.C. Jurs. 1979. “Computer-assisted computation of partition coefficients from molecular structures using fragment constants.” Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences 19 (3):172-178. doi: 10.1021/ci60019a013.
Chu, M-Y.J , P.J. Bennett, M.E. Dolan, M.R. Hyman, A.D. Peacock, A. Bodour, R.H. Anderson, D.M. Mackay, and M.N. Goltz. 2018. “Concurrent Treatment of 1,4-Dioxane and Chlorinated Aliphatics in a Groundwater Recirculation System Via Aerobic Cometabolism.” Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation 38 (3):53-64. doi: 10.1111/gwmr.12293.
Collander, Runar. 1951. “The partition of organic compounds between higher alcohols and water.” Acta Chemica Scandinavica 5:774-780. doi: 10.3891/acta.chem.scand.05-0774.
Cordone, Leslie, Chris Carlson, William Plaehn, Timothy Shangraw, and David Wilmoth. 2016. “Case Study and Retrospective: Aerobic Fixed Film Biological Treatment Process for 1,4-Dioxane at the Lowry Landfill Superfund Site.” Remediation Journal 27 (1):159-172. doi: 10.1002/rem.21502.
Coronado, Christian J.R., João A. Carvalho, José C. Andrade, Ely V. Cortez, Felipe S. Carvalho, José C. Santos, and Andrés Z. Mendiburu. 2012. “Flammability limits: A review with emphasis on ethanol for aeronautical applications and description of the experimental procedure.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 32 (54):241-242. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.09.035.
CRC. 1987. Material Safety Data Sheet for 5089 Brakleen Aerosol FSC: 6850. CRC Chemicals.
Crenshaw, J.L., A.C. Cope, N. Finkelstein, and R. Rogan. 1938. “The dioxanates of the mercuric halides.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 60 (10):2308-2311. doi: 10.1021/ja01277a010.
Crittenden, John C., R.R. Trussell, David W. Hand, Kerry J. Howe, and George Tchobanoglous. 2012. MWH’s Water Treatment : Principles and Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons : MWH.
Cronk, G., and R. Cartwright. 2006. “Optimization of a chemical oxidation treatment train process for groundwater remediation.” Fifth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA.
Curry, Michael A. 2012. “1,4 dioxane removal from groundwater using point-of-entry water treatment techniques.” Civil Engineering, University of New Hampshire (Master’s Theses and Capstones – 744).
Da Silva, M.L.B., Y. He, J. Mathieu, and P.J. Alvarez. 2020. “Enhanced long-term attenuation of 1,4-dioxane in bioaugmented flow-through aquifer columns.” Biodegradation 31:201-211.
Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner, H.M. Sibul, and C.C. Stebbins. 1989. “1,4-Dioxane.” In Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals, Data Compilation: Design Institute for Physical Property Data, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, edited by Taylor & Francis. Washington DC: Taylor & Francis.
De Clercq, J., E. Van de Steene, K. Verbeken, and M. Verhaege. 2010. “Electrochemical oxidation of 1,4‐dioxane at boron‐doped diamond electrode.” J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 85:1162-1167. doi: 10.1002/jctb.2415.
Deng, D., F. Li, L. Ye, and M. Li. 2019. “Complete genome sequence of Azoarcus sp strain DD4, a gram-negative propanotroph that degrades 1,4-dioxane and 1-1-dichloroethylene.” Microbiology Resource Announcements 8 (33). doi: 10.1128/MRA.00775-19.
Deng, Daiyong, Fei Li, and Mengyan Li. 2018. “A Novel Propane Monooxygenase Initiating Degradation of 1,4-Dioxane by Mycobacterium Dioxanotrophicus PH-06.” Environmental Science and Technology Letters 5 (December):86–91. doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00504.
DHHS. 2014. Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition. In Public Health Service – National Toxicology Program, edited by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC.
Diamond, G.L., and P.R. Durkin. 1997. Effects of surfactants on the toxicity of glyphosate, with specific reference to RODEO. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Research Corporation.
Dietrich, M. , G. Andaluri, R.C. Smith, and R. Suri. 2017. “Combined Ozone and Ultrasound for the Removal of 1,4-Dioxane from Drinking Water.” Ozone: Science & Engineering 39 (4):244-254. doi: 10.1080/01919512.2017.1321981.
DiGuiseppi, W., D. Winter, J. Hatton, J. Field, K. Barzen-Hanson, and J. Bishop; D. Berggren. 2015. “Emerging Contaminant False Positives from Standard Groundwater Sampling Equipment and Procedures.” Poster presented at 3rd International Symposium on Bioremediation and Sustainable Environmental Technologies.
DiGuiseppi, W.H., and N. Mahler. 2015. “Decision analytics applied to emerging contaminant sampling using 1,4 Dioxane and Perfluorinated compounds as an example.” Network for Industrially Contaminated Lands in Europe (NICOLE) Network Spring Meeting & Workshop on Unconventional Contaminants, Manchester, UK, June 24‐26, 2015.
DiGuiseppi, W.H., and C. Whitesides. 2007. “Treatment Options for Remediation of 1,4-Dioxane in Groundwater.” Environmental Engineer 43 (2):36–41.
Doe, J.E., A.R. Boobis, V. Dellarco, P.A. Fenner-Crisp, A. Moretto, T.P. Pastoor, R.S. Schoeny, J.G. Seed, and D.C. Wolf. 2019. “Chemical carcinogenicity revisited 2: Current knowledge of carcinogenesis shows that categorization as a carcinogen or non-carcinogen is not scientifically credible.” Reg Tox Pharmacol. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2019.01.024.
Dombrowski, Paul M., Barbara A. Weir, Kara M. Kelly, and James Brown. 2010. Fast-Track Remedial Design of Full-Scale ISCO Application Using Pilot Scale Testing and Field Screening Parameters. https://scholarworks.umass.edu/soilsproceedings/vol15/iss1/16/.
Dourson, M., J. Higginbotham, J. Crum, H. Burleigh-Flayer, P. Nance, N. Forsberg, M. Lafranconi, and J. Reichard. 2017. “Update: Mode of action (MOA) for liver tumors induced by oral exposure to 1,4-dioxane.” Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 88:45-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.02.025.
Dourson, M., J. Reichard, P. Nance, H. Burleigh-Flayer, A. Parker, M. Vincent, and E.E. Mcconnell. 2014. “Mode of action analysis for liver tumors from oral 1,4-dioxane exposures and evidence-based dose response assessment.” Regul Toxicol Pharmacol (68):387-401. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.01.011.
Dow. 1989. TSCA 8(e) letter – Analyses of polyethylene glycol for 1,4-dioxane. edited by Dow Chemical Corporation: USEPA – Office of Toxic Substances Report.
Drewes, Jörg E., Paul Anderson, Nancy Denslow, Walter Jakubowski, Adam Olivieri, Daniel Schlenk, and Shane Snyder. 2018. Monitoring Strategies for Constituents of Emerging Concern (CECs) in Recycled Water. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.
DTSC. 2019. 1,4-Dioxane in Personal Care and Cleaning Products. https://dtsc.ca.gov/scp/1-4-dioxane/: California Department of Toxic Substances Control.
EC. 2010. Screening Assessment for the Challenge, 1,4-Dioxane. Environment Canada, Health Canada.
ECB. 2002. European Union Risk Assessment Report for 1,4-Dioxane. edited by The Netherlands: Institute for Health and Consumer Protection: European Chemicals Bureau.
ECHA. 2014. 1,4-Dioxane. edited by Committee for Risk Assessment: European Chemicals Agency
Eigenbrodt, Caroline Blake, and Eric Robert Rooney. 2014. “Adsorption of 1,4-Dioxane on Activated Carbon with Regeneration by Titanium Dioxide/Ultraviolet Light.” Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Major Qualifying Project).
Evans, Patrick, Jennifer Hooper, Michael Lamar, Dung Nguyen, Pamela Dugan, Michelle Crimi, and Nancy Ruiz. 2018. Final Report: Sustained In situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) of 1,4-Dioxane and Chlorinated VOCs Using Slow-release Chemical Oxidant Cylinders. Environmental Security Technology Certification Program.
Even-Ezra, Itay, Anat Mizrahi, Daniel Gerrity, Shane Snyder, Andrew Salveson, and Ori Lahav. 2009. “Application of a novel plasma-based advanced oxidation process for efficient and cost-effective destruction of refractory organics in tertiary effluents and contaminated groundwater.” Desalination and Water Treatment 11 (1-3):236-244. doi: 10.5004/dwt.2009.807.
Fan, D., Y. Lan, P.G. Tratnyek, R.L. Johnson, J. Filip, D.M. O’Carroll, A.N. Garcia, and A. Agrawal. 2017. “Sulfidation of Iron-Based Materials: A Review of Processes and Implications for Water Treatment and Remediation.” Environmental Science & Technology 51:13070-13085.
FDA. 1980. Progress report on the analysis of ethoxylated ingredients for 1,4-dioxane. edited by Division of Cosmetics Technology: Food and Drug Administration.
FDA. 1981. Progress report on the analysis of cosmetics raw materials and finished cosmetics products for 1,4-dioxane. edited by Division of Cosmetics Technology: Food and Drug Administration
FDA. 1997. Letter from FDA Regarding Dioxane in Contraceptive Sponges. Food and Drug Administration.
FDA. 2003. Food for Human Consumption. edited by Food and Drug Administration. Washington, DC: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=175.105
FDA. 2019. 1,4-Dioxane in Cosmetics: A Manufacturing Byproduct. In https://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/potential-contaminants-cosmetics/14-dioxane-cosmetics-manufacturing-byproduct: Food and Drug Adminstration
Félix-Navarro, RM, SW Lin-Ho, N Barrera-Díaz, and S Pérez-Sicairos. 2007. “Kinetics of the Degradation of 1,4-Dioxane Using Persulfate.” Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society 51:67-71.
Felter, S.P., J.E. Foreman, A. Boobis, J.C. Corton, A.M. Doi, L. Flowers, J. Goodman, L.T. Haber, A. Jacobs, J.E. Klaunig, A.M. Lynch, J. Moggs, and A. Pandiri. 2018. “Human relevance of rodent liver tumors: Key insights form a toxicology forum workshop on nongenotoxic modes of action.” Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 92:1-7
Finneran, K.T., and D.R. Lovley. 2001. “Anaerobic Degradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA).” Environmental Science & Technology 35 (9):1785–1790. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/es001596t.
Fishbein, L. 1981. “Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of solvents: I. Glycidyl ethers, dioxane, nitroalkanes, dimethylformamide and allyl derivatives.” Science of the Total Environment 17 (2):97–110.
Fotta, Meredith Elyse. 2012. “Effect of Granular Activated Carbon Type on Adsorber Performance and Scale-Up Approaches for Volatile Organic Compound Removal.” North Carolina State University.
Fraser-Monteiro, Maria L., Luis Fraser-Monteiro, James J. Butler, Tomas Baer, and J. Ronald Hass. 1982. “Thermochemistry and dissociation dynamics of state-selected C4H8O2+ ions, 1,4-Dioxane.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry 86 (5):739-747. doi: 10.1021/j100394a031.
Fujioka, Takahiro, Hitoshi Kodamatani, Haruka Takeuchi, Hiroaki Tanaka, and Long D. Nghiem. 2018,. “Online monitoring of N-nitrosodimethylamine for the removal assurance of 1,4-dioxane and other trace organic compounds by reverse osmosis.” Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol. 4:2021-2028. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/C8EW00271A.
Fujiwara, T., T. Tamada, Y. Kurata, Y. Ono, T. Kose, Y. Ono, F. Nishimura, and K. Ohtoshi. 2008. “Investigation of 1,4-dioxane originating from incineration residues produced by incineration of municipal solid waste.” Chemosphere 71 (5):894-901.
Furman, Olha S., Amy L. Teel, and Richard J. Watts. 2010. “Mechanism of Base Activation of Persulfate.” Environmental Science & Technology. doi: 10.1021/es1013714.
Gedalanga, P., A. Madison, Y. Miao, T. Richards, J. Hatton, W.H. DiGuiseppi, J. Wilson, and S. Mahendra. 2016. “A Multiple Lines of Evidence Framework to Evaluate Intrinsic Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane. Remediation.” Remediation, Winter 2016.
Gedalanga, P.B. , P. Pornwongthong, R. Mora, S-Y.D. Chiang, B. Baldwin, D. Ogles, and S. Mahendra. 2014. “Identification of biomarker genes to predict biodegradation of 1, 4-dioxane.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80 (10):3209-3218. doi: 10.1128/AEM.04162-13.
Gestler, R. 2016. “Case studies for phytoremediation of 1,4-dioxane contaminated aquifers.” Emerging Contaminants Summit, Westminster, Colorado, March 1–3, 2006.
Giavini, E., C. Vismara, and M.L. Broccia. 1985. “Teratogenesis study of dioxane in rats.” Toxicol. Lett. 26 (1):85–88.
Gossett, J.M. 2010. “Sustained aerobic oxidation of vinyl chloride at low oxygen concentrations.” Environmental Science & Technology 44:1405–1411.
Grolier, J.P.E., A. Inglese, and E. Wilhelm. 1984. “Excess molar heat capacities of (1,4-dioxane + an n-alkane): an unusual composition dependence.” The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 16 (1):67-71. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(84)90076-4.
GSA. 1945. Trichloroethylene: Stabilized Degreasing. In Army-Navy Aeronautical Specification: General Service Administration.
GWPC. 2020. “FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry.” accessed May 18, 2020.
Han, J. S., M. H. So, and C. G. Kim. 2000. “Optimization of biological wastewater treatment conditions for 1, 4-dioxane decomposition in polyester manufacturing processes.” Water Science and Technology 59 (5):995-1002.
Hand, S., B. Wang, and K-H Chu. 2015. “Biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane: Effects of enzyme inducers and trichloroethylene.” Science of The Total Environment 520:154-159. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.031.
Hansch, Corwin, and Albert Leo. 1979. Substituent constants for correlation analysis in chemistry and biology. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience.
Hatzinger, P.B., J.F. Begley, D.R. Lippincott, A. Bodour, and R. Forbes. 2018. “In situ bioremediation of 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) to in groundwater to part-per-trillion concentrations using cometabolism.” J. Contam. Hydrol. 218:120-129.
Hatzinger, P.B., C. Condee, K.R. McClay, and A.P. Togna. 2011. “Aerobic treatment of N-nitrosodimethylamine in a propane-fed membrane bioreactor.” Water Res. 45:254-262.
Hatzinger, P.B., C. Lewis, and T.A. Webster. 2017. “Biological treatment of n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and n-nitrodimethylamine (NTDMA) in a field-scale fluidized bed bioreactor.” Water Res. 126:361-371.
Hatzinger, P.B., and D.L. Lippincott. 2019. “Field demonstration of in situ bioremediation of n-nitrosodimethylamine in groundwater via propane biosparging.” Water Res. 164.
Hatzinger, Paul B., Rahul Banerjee, Rachael Rezes, Sheryl H. Streger, Kevin McClay, and Charles E. Schaefer. 2017. “Potential for Cometabolic Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane in Aquifers with Methane or Ethane as Primary Substrates.” Biodegradation 28 (December):453–468. doi: 10.1007/s10532-017-9808-7.
Hazen, T.C. . 2019. Cometabolic Bioremediation. In Consequences of Microbial Interactions with Hydrocarbons Oils, and Lipids: Biodegradation and Bioremediation. Edited by R. Steffan: Springer.
HC. 2010. Part V: Guidance on Human Health Detailed Quantitative Risk Assessment for Chemicals (DQRAChem). edited by Federal Contaminated Site Risk Assessment in Canada. http://www.healthcanada.gc.ca: Health Canada.
HC. 2018. 1,4-Dioxane in Drinking Water: Guideline Technical Document for Public Consultation. edited by Health Canada: https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/hc-sc/documents/programs/consultation-1-4-dioxane-drinking-water/pub-eng.pdf.
He, Y., J. Mathieu, Y. Yang, P. Yu, M.L.B. da Silva, and P.J.J. Alvarez. 2017. “1,4-Dioxane biodegradation by Mycobacterium dioxanotrophicus PH-06 is associated with a Group 6 soluble di-iron monooxygenase.” Environmental Science and Technology Letters 4:494-499. doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00456.
Hinchee, Robert. 2017. “1,4-Dioxane Impacts and Innovative Cleanup Technologies at DoD Contaminated Sites.” SERDP & ESTCP Webinar Series, Washington, DC, April 7, 2017.
Hinchee, Robert E., Paul R. Dahalen, Paul C. Johnson, and David R. Burris. 2018. “1,4-Dioxane Soil Remediation Using Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction: I. Field Demonstration.” NGWA Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation 38 (Spring):40–48.
Hoch-Ligeti, C., M.F. Argus, and J.C. Arcos. 1970. “Induction of carcinomas in the nasal cavity of rats by dioxane.” Br J Cancer 24:164-167.
Holton, C., W. DiGuiseppi, and T. Mohr. 2017. “Assessment of Vapor Intrusion of Volatile but Miscible Compounds.” Remediation Technology Summit (RemTEC Summit), Denver, CO, March 7, 2017.
Horsley, L.H. 1947. “Table of azeotropes and nonazeotropes.” Analytical Chemistry 19 (8):508-600. doi: 10.1021/ac60008a002.
Horst, John, Caitlin H. Bell, Andrew Lorenz, Monica Heintz, Yu Miao, Jackie Saling, Davis Favero, and Shaily Mahendra. 2019. “Bioremediation of 1,4-Dioxane: Successful Demonstration of In Situ and Ex Situ Approaches.” Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation 39 (4):15–24.
Horvath, R.S. 1972. “Microbial cometabolism and the degradation of organic compounds in nature.” Bacterial 36:146-155.
Hovenkamp, S. G., and J. P. Munting. 1970. “Formation of Glycol as a Side Reaction during Production of Polyethylene Terephthalate.” Journal of Polymer Science:679–682.
Hovorka, Frank, Ralph A. Schaefer, and Dale Dreisbach. 1936. “The system dioxane and water.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 58 (11):2264-2267. doi: 10.1021/ja01302a051.
HSDB. 2010. 1,4-Dioxane. Hazardous Substances Data Bank.
HSDB. 2019. 1,4-Dioxane. In Toxicology Data Network (ToxNET), edited by Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB): U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Huang, H.Y., M.T. Sung, H.L. Eng, C.C. Huang, W.T. Huang, and W.J. Chen. 2002. “Superficial collagenous fibroma: immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and flow cytometric study of three cases, including one pemphigus vulgaris patient with a dermal mass.” Apmis 110 (4):283-289.
Huang, Huanlin, Dongsheng Shen, Na Li, Dan Shan, Jiali Shentu, and YuYang Zhou. 2014. “Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane by a Novel Strain and Its Biodegradation Pathway.” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 225 (September):2135–2146. doi: 10.1007/s11270-014-2135-2.
Huntley, S., M. Amarai, and J. Schell. 2004. “Toxicokinetics of 1,4-dioxane and implications for assessing hazards to terrestrial wildlife.” Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25th Annual Meeting, Portland, OR, November 14-18, 2004.
Huntress, E.H., and S.P. Mulliken. 1941. Identification of Pure Organic Compounds – Tables of Data on Selected Compounds of Order I. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Huuskonen, Jarmo. 2003. “Prediction of soil sorption coefficient of a diverse set of organic chemicals from molecular structure.” Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences 43 (5):1457-1462. doi: 10.1021/ci020342j.
IARC. 1999. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Volume 71. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Inoue, D., T. Tsunoda, K. Sawada, N. Yamamoto, Y. Saito, K. Sei, and M. Ike. 2016. “1,4-Dioxane degradation potential of members of the genera Pseudonocardia and Rhodococcus.” Biodegradation 27:277-286. doi: 10.1007/s10532-016-9772-7.
Inoue, D., T. Tsunoda, K. Sawada, N. Yamamoto, K. Sei, and M. Ike. 2020. “Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of metals on 1,4-dioxane degradation by four different 1,4-dioxane degrading bacteria.” Chemosphere 238. doi: doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124606.
ITER. 2019. International Toxicity Estimates for Risk (ITER) TOXNET. edited by U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://www.toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2: Accessed September 08, 2019.
ITRC. 1999. Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater: Principles and Practices (ISB-3). Washington, DC: Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council.
ITRC. 2004. Technical and Regulatory Guidance for Using Polyethylene Diffusion Bag Samplers to Monitor Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater. Washington, DC: Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council.
ITRC. 2005. Technical and Regulatory Guidance for In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater. Washington, DC: Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council.
ITRC. 2006. Technology Overview of Passive Sampler Technologies. Washington, DC: Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council.
ITRC. 2007. Vapor Intrusion – A Practical Guideline. Washington, DC: Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council.
ITRC. 2009. Phytotechnology Technical and Regulatory Guidance and Decisions Trees, Revised. Washington, DC: Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council.
ITRC. 2015. Decision Making at Contaminated Sites: Issues and Options in Human Health Risk Assessment (RISK-3). edited by Risk Assessment Team. Washington, DC: Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council.
Jasper, Joseph J. 1972. “The Surface Tension of Pure Liquid Compounds.” 1 (4):841-1010. doi: 10.1063/1.3253106.
JBRC. 1998. Two-year studies of 1,4-dioxane in F344 rats and BDF1 mice (drinking water). Kanagawa, Japan: Japan Bioassay Research Center.
Johns, M.M., W.E. Marshall, and C.A. Toles. 1998. “Agricultural by‐products as granular activated carbons for adsorbing dissolved metals and organics.” J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 71:131-140. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(199802)71:2<131::AID-JCTB821>3.0.CO;2-K.
Johnson, N.W., P.B. Gedalanga, L. Zhao, B. Gu, and S. Mahendra. 2020. “Cometabolic biotransformation of 1,4-dioxane in mixtures with hexavalent chromium using attached and planktonic bacteria.” Science of The Total Environment 706. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135734.
Johnson, Wilbur Jr. 2001. “Final Report on the Safety Assessment of PEG-25 Propylene Glycol Stearate, PEG-75 Propylene Glycol Stearate, PEG-120 Propylene Glycol Stearate, PEG-10 Propylene Glycol, PEG-8 Propylene Glycol Cocoate, and PEG-55 Propylene Glycol Oleate.” International Journal of Toxicology 20 (4):13–26.
Kambhu, Ann, Megan Gren, Wei Tang, Steve Comfort, and Clifford E. Harris. 2017. “Remediating 1,4-dioxane contaminated water with slow release persulfate and zerovalent iron.” Chemosphere 175:170–177.
Kano, H., Y. Umeda, T. Kasai, T. Sasaki, M. Matsumoto, K. Yamazaki, K. Nagano, H. Arito, and S. Fukushima. 2009. “Carcinogenicity studies of 1,4-dioxane administered in drinking-water to rats and mice for 2 years.” Food Chem Toxicol 47 (11):2776-2784. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.08.012.
Kano, H., Y. Umeda, M. Saito, H. Senoh, H. Ohbayashi, S. Aiso, K. Yamazaki, K. Nagano, and S. Fukushima. 2008. “Thirteen-week oral toxicity of 1,4-dioxane in rats and mice.” J. Toxicol. Sci. 32 (2):141–153.
Karbe, E., and R.L. Kerlin. 2002. “Cystic degeneration/spongiosis hepatis in rats.” Toxicol Pathol 30:216-227.
Karges, Ursula, Johannes Becker, and Wilhelm Püttmann. 2018. “1, 4-Dioxane pollution at contaminated groundwater sites in western Germany and its distribution within a TCE plume.” Science of the Total Environment (April):712–720.
Kasai, T., H. Kano, Y. Umeda, T. Sasaki, N. Ikawa, T. Nishizawa, K. Nagano, H. Arito, H. Nagashima, and S. Fukushima. 2009. “Two-year inhalation study of carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of 1,4-dioxane in male rats.” Inhal Toxicol 21:889-897. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958370802629610.
Kasai, T., M. Saito, H. Senoh, Y. Umeda, S. Aiso, H. Ohbayashi, T. Nishizawa, K. Nagano, and S. Fukushima. 2008. “Thirteen-week inhalation toxicity of 1,4-dioxane in rats.” Inhal. Toxicol. 20 (10):961–971.
Katagiri, T., K. Nagano, S. Aiso, H. Senoh, Y. Sakura, T. Takeuchi, and M. Okudaira. 1998. “A pathological study on spontaneous hepatic neoplasms in BDF1 mice.” J. Toxicol Pathol 11:21-25.
Kegel, F. , B. Schoonenberg, M. Rietman, and A.R.D. Verliefde. 2010. “Reverse osmosis followed by activated carbon filtration for efficient removal of organic micropollutants from river bank filtrate.” Water Sci Technol 61 (10):2603–2610. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2010.166.
Kelley, Sara L., Eric W. Aitchison, Milind Deshpande, Jerald L. Schnoor, and Pedro J. Alvarez. 2001. “Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane in Planted and Unplanted Soil: Effect of Bioaugmentation with Amycolata sp. CB119.” Water Research 35 (November):3791–3800. doi: 10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00129-4.
Kim, Y.M., J.R. Jeon, K. Murugesan, E.J. Kim, and Y.S. Chang. 2009. “Biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane and transformation of related cyclic compounds by a newly isolated Mycobacterium sp. PH-06.” Biodegradation 20:511–519. doi: doi: 10.1007/s10532-008-9240-0.
Kinne, M., M. Poraj-Kobielska, S.A. Ralph, R. Ulrich, M. Hofrichter, and K.E. Hammel. 2009. “Oxidative cleavage of diverse ethers by an extracellular fungal peroxygenase.” Journal of Biological Chemistry 284 (43):29343-29349.
Knappe, D.R.U., C. Lopez-Velandia, Z. Hopkins, and M. Sun. 2016. “Occurrence of 1,4-Dioxane in the Cape Fear River Watershed and Effectiveness of Water Treatment Options for 1,4-Dioxane Control.” Water Resources Research Institute of The University of North Carolina Report No. 478.
Kociba, R.J., S.B. McCollister, C. Park, T.R. Torkelson, and P.J. Gehring. 1974. “1,4-dioxane. I. results of a 2-year ingestion study in rats. .” Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 30 (2):275–286. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0041-008X(74)90099-4.
Kociba, R.J., T.R. Torkelson, A. Clashman, S. McCollister, and P.J. Gehring. 1971. Continuous exposure of Sherman rats to various concentrations of 1,4-dioxane in drinking water for two years. In Biochemical Research Laboratory: The Dow Chemical Company.
Krippaehne, Krysta J. 2018. “Cometabolism of 1,4-Dioxane and Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons by Pure Cultures of Rhodococcus Rhodochrous 21198 and Mycobacterium Elw1 and In Groundwater Microcosms Fed Isobutane and Isobutene As Growth Substrates.” Oregon State University.
Lake, B.G. 2018. “Human relevance of rodent liver tumour formation by constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activators.” Toxicology Research 7 (4):697-717.
Lan, R.S., C.A. Smith, and M.R. Hyman. 2013. “Oxidation of cyclic ethers by alkane-grown Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5.” Remediation Journal 23:23–42.
Laurance, J. 2019. “Bioaugmentation of Pure and Enriched Cultures Fed Multiple Primary Substrates to Aerobically Cometabolize a Mixture of Chlorinated Solvents and 1,4-dioxane in Microcosms Containing Groundwater from a Department of Defense Site.” Masters Thesis, Oregon State University.
Leaist, Derek G., Kimberley MacEwan, Alexandra Stefan, and Muhannad Zamari. 2000. “Binary Mutual Diffusion Coefficients of Aqueous Cyclic Ethers at 25 °C. Tetrahydrofuran, 1,3-Dioxolane, 1,4-Dioxane, 1,3-Dioxane, Tetrahydropyran, and Trioxane.” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 45 (5):815-818. doi: 10.1021/je000079n.
Leeson, A., H.F. Stroo, and P.C. Johnson. 2013. “Groundwater remediation today and challenges and opportunities for the future.” Groundwater 51 (2):175-179.
Lendvay, J.M., W.A. Sauck, M.L. McCormick, M.J. Barcelona, D.H. Kampbell, J.T. Wilson, and P. Adriaens. 1998. “Geophysical characterization, redox zonation, and contaminant distribution at a groundwater/surface water interface.” Water Resour. Res. 34 (12):3545– 3559. doi: doi:10.1029/98WR01736.
Li, F., D. Deng, and M. Li. 2019. “Distinct catalytic behaviors between two 1,4-dioxane-degrading monooxygenases: Kinetics, inhibition, and substrate range.” Environmental Science and Technology 54:1898-1908. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b05671.
Li, Wei, Tushar Jain, Kenneth Ishida, Christina K. Remucal, and Haizhou Liu. 2017. “A mechanistic understanding of the degradation of trace organic contaminants by UV/hydrogen peroxide, UV/persulfate and UV/free chlorine for water reuse.” Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol. 3:128–138.
Li, Wei, Samuel Patton, Jamie M. Gleason, Stephen P. Mezyk, Kenneth P. Ishida, and Haizhou Liu. 2018. “UV Photolysis of Chloramine and Persulfate for 1,4-Dioxane Removal in Reverse-Osmosis Permeate for Potable Water Reuse.” Environmental Science & Technology 52 (11):6417-6425. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b06042.
Liang, C., C.J. Bruell, M.C. Marley, and K.L. Sperry. 2003a. “Persulfate Oxidation for In Situ Remediation of TCE: I. Activated by Ferrous Ion with and without a Persulfate-Thiosulfate Redox Couple.” Chemosphere.
Liang, C., C.J. Bruell, M.C. Marley, and K.L. Sperry. 2003b. “Persulfate Oxidation for In Situ Remediation of TCE: II. Activated by Chelated Ferrous Ion.” Chemosphere.
Liang, C., C.J. Bruell, M.C. Marley, and K.L. Sperry. 2003c. “Thermally Activated Persulfate Oxidation of TCE and 1,1,1-TCA in Aqueous Systems and Soil Slurries.” Soil and Sediment Contamination 12 (2):207–28.
Lide, David R., and William M. Haynes. 2009. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Vol. 90th Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Limmer, M.A., and J.G. Burken. 2015. “Phytoscreening with SPME: Variability Analysis.” International Journal of Phytoremediation 17 (11):1115-1122. doi: DOI: 10.1080/15226514.2015.1045127
Limmer, M.A., and J.G. Burken. 2014. “Plant Translocation of Organic Compounds: Physicochemical Predictors ” Environmental Science and Technology Letters 1 (2):156–161.
Lippincott, D. , S.H. Streger, C.E. Schaefer, J. Hinkle, J. Stormo, and R. Steffan. 2015. “Bioaugmentation and Propane Biosparging for In Situ Biodegradation of 1,4‐Dioxane.” Monitoring & Remediation doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/gwmr.12093.
Liu, C., and W.P. Ball. 2002. “Back Diffusion of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminants from a Natural Aquitard to a Remediated Aquifer Under Well‐Controlled Field Conditions: Predictions and Measurements.” Groundwater 40:175-184. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.2002.tb02502.x.
Lutz, R.W., W.A. Stahel, and W.K. Lutz. 2002. “Statistical procedures to test for linearity and estimate threshold doses for tumor induction with nonlinear dose-response relationships in bioassays for carcinogenicity.” Reg Tox Pharmacol 36:331-337.
Lyman, W., W. Reehl, and D. Ronsenblatt. 1982. Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Vol. Chapter 8.
Mackay, D., and J.A. Cherry. 1989. “Groundwater Contamination: Pump and Treat Remediation.” Environ. Sci. Technol. 23 (6): 630–636.
Mackay, Donald, Wan Ying Shiu, Kuo-Ching Ma, and Sum Chi Lee. 2006. “1,4-Dioxane.” In Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic Chemicals on Cd-Rom, 2309-2312. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Madigan, M.T., J.M. Martinko, K.S. Bender, D.H. Buckley, and D.A. Stahl. 2015. Brock Biology of Microorganisms. Edited by Fourteenth Edition. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Mahendra, S., and L. Alvarez-Cohen. 2005. “Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans sp. nov., a novel actinomycete that grows on 1,4-dioxane.” Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:593–598.
Mahendra, S., and L. Alvarez-Cohen. 2006. “Kinetics of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by monooxygenase-expressing bacteria.” Environmental Science and Technology 40:5435-5442. doi: doi: 10.1021/es060714v.
Mahendra, Shaily, Ariel Grostern, and Lisa Alvarez-Cohen. 2013. “The Impact of Chlorinated Solvent Co-Contaminants on the Biodegradation Kinetics of 1,4-Dioxane.” Chemosphere 91 (1):88–92. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.10.104.
Mahendra, Shaily, Christopher J. Petzold, Edward E. Baidoo, Jay D. Keasling, and Lisa Alvarez-Cohen. 2007. “Identification of the Intermediates of in Vivo Oxidation of 1,4-Dioxane by Monooxygenase-Containing Bacteria.” Environmental Science & Technology Letters 41 (November):7330–7336. doi: 10.1021/es0705745.
Maryott, Arthur A., and Edgar R. Smith. 1951. “Table of Dielectric Constants of Pure Liquids, Circular 514, Issued August 10, 1951.” National Bureau of Standards. doi: https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a278956.pdf.
Masuda, H., K. McClay, R.J. Steffan, and G. Zylstra. 2012. “Biodegradation of tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-dioxane by soluble diiron monooxygenase in Pseudonocardia sp. strain ENV4798.” Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 22:312-316. doi: 10.1159/000343817.
Matsumura, Hiroyuki, Syu Shimamoto, and Tohru Shibata. 1997. Tobacco smoke filter materials, fibrous cellulose esters, and production processes.
McCarty, P.L. 1987. Bioengineering issues related to in situ remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater in environmental biotechnology. Edited by GS Omenn. New York, NY: Plenum.
McElroy, A., and M. Hyman. 2019. Biodegradation of Ether Pollutants. In Consequences of Microbial Interactions with Hydrocarbons Oils, and Lipids: Biodegradation and Bioremediation. Edited by R. Steffan: Springer.
McGuire, M.J., I.H. Suffet, and J.V. Radziul. 1978. “Assessment of Unit Processes for the Removal of Trace Organic Compounds From Drinking Water.” American Water Works Association 70 (10):565-72.
Meek, ME, CM Palermo, AN Bachman, CM North, and RJ Lewis. 2014. “Mode of action human relevance (species concordance) framework – Evolution of the Bradford Hill considerations and comparative analysis of weight of evidence.” J Appl Toxicol 34 (6):595–606.
MNDOH. 2013. Toxicological Summary for 1,4-Dioxane. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Health.
Mohr, Thomas K. G., William H. DiGuiseppi, Janet Katherine Anderson, and James W. Hatton. 2020. Environmental Investigation and Remediation: 1,4-Dioxane and Other Solvent Stabilizers 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Montgomery, John H. 2007. Groundwater Chemicals Desk Reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Mora, R., Y. Miao, F. Barajas-Rodriguez, H. Holbrook, R.H. Anderson, K. Sublette, and S. Mahendra. 2020. “Field Bioaugmentation with Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 Using In Situ Bioreactors.” Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation manuscript under review.
Morrison, R. D., and B. L. Murphy. 2015. Source Identification and Age Dating of Chlorinated Solvents: In Introduction to Environmental Forensics. Vol. Third ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Myers, Michelle A., Nicholas W. Johnson, Erick Zerecero Marin, Peerapong Pornwongthong, Yun Liu, Phillip B. Gedalanga, and Shaily Mahendra. 2018. “Abiotic and Bioaugmented Granular Activated Carbon for the Treatment of 1,4-Dioxane-Contaminated Water.” Environmental Pollution 240:916-924. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.011.
MDEQ. 2018. Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions: Pathway Compliance Options. Remediation and Redevelopment Division (RRD)-Resource Materials. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. April 2018. https://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/deq-rrd-2018-05GSIPathwayComplianceOptionsResourceMaterials_624831_7.pdf
Nahar, M. S., and J Zhang. 2011. “Concentration and distribution of organic and inorganic water pollutants in Eastern Shizuoka, Japan.” Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry 93 (10):1946-1955.
Nakamiya, K. , S. Hashimoto, H. Ito, J.S. Edmonds, and M. Morita. 2005. “Degradation of 1,4-dioxane and cyclic ethers by an isolated fungus.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71:1254-1258.
NAS. 2003. Food chemicals codex. In 5th ed., edited by National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC.
NCBI. 2020. PubChem database – Dioxane. edited by National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/31275.
NCDWR. 2016. 1,4-Dioxane in the Cape Fear River Basin of North Carolina: An Initial Screening and Source Identification Study. Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina Division of Water Resources, North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality.
NCI. 1978. Bioassay of 1,4-dioxane for possible carcinogenicity. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute.
Newell, C., D. Adamson, P. Kulkarni, B. Nzeribe, and H. Stroo. 2020. “Comparing PFAS to other groundwater contaminants: Implications for remediation. .” Remediation. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/rem.21645.
NHDES. 2019. Environmental Fact Sheet: 1,4-Dioxane and Drinking Water. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services.
NICNAS. 1998. 1,4-Dioxane Priority Existing Chemical No. 7. In Full Public Report. Sydney: National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme.
NIH. 2020. 1,4-Dioxane. edited by National Institute of Health. https://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/name/dioxane U.S. National Library of Medicine – ChemIDplus Database.
NIOSH. 1994. Dioxane-Method 1602, Issue 2. edited by NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods Fourth Edition: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
NIOSH. 2019. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. edited by Department of Health and Human Services – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0237.html: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
NYSDOH. 2019. Proposed Regulations. New York: New York State Department of Health.
NYSPPI. 2017. Historic and Current Potential Sources of 1,4 dioxane – Research Summary. New York State Pollution Prevention Institute.
O’Neil, M.J., C.A. Smith, P.E. Heckelman, J.R. Obenchain, J.R. Gallipeau, and M.A. D’Arecca. 2001. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals Vol. 13th Ed. Whitehouse Station, N.J: Merck & Co.
Oberle, D., E. Crownover, and M. Kluger. 2015. “In Situ Remediation of 1,4-Dioxane Using Electrical Resistance Heating.” Remediation Journal Spring 2015. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/rem.21422.
Oregon. 2015. Technical Report: Oregon Health Authority’s Process to Determine Which Types of Contaminants to Test for in Cannabis Products, and Levels for Action. In Accessed February 6, 2020. https://www.oregon.gov/oha/PH/PreventionWellness/marijuana/Documents/oha-8964-technical-report-marijuana-contaminant-testing.pdf.
OSHA. 2017. Air Contaminants. 29 CFR 1910.1000 [82 FR 2735, January 9, 2017]. edited by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Washington, DC: https://www.osha.gov/laws-regs/regulations/standardnumber/1910/1910.1.
OSHA. 2020. Annotated Table Z-1. https://www.osha.gov/dsg/annotated-pels/tablez-1.html: Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Otto, M., and S. Nagaraja. 2007. “Treatment technologies for 1,4‐Dioxane: Fundamentals and field applications.” Remediation 17:81-88. doi: doi:10.1002/rem.20135.
Pankow, J.F., and J.A. Cherry. 1996. Dense Chlorinated Solvents and other DNAPLs in Groundwater: History, Behavior, and Remediation. Ontario, Canada: Waterloo Press.
Papanastasiou, Georgios E., Achilleas D. Papoutsis, and Georgios I. Kokkinidis. 1987. “Physical Behavior of Some Reaction Media. Density, Viscosity, Dielectric Constant, and Refractive Index Changes of Ethanol-Dioxane Mixtures at Several Temperatures.” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 32 (3):377-381. doi: 10.1021/je00049a028.
Parales, R.E. , J.E. Adamus, N. White, and H.D. May. 1994. “Degradation of 1,4-dioxane by an actinomycete in pure culture.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60:4527-4530.
Park, Hyeona, Naresh Mameda, and Kwang-Ho Choo. 2018. “Catalytic metal oxide nanopowder composite Ti mesh for electrochemical oxidation of 1,4-dioxane and dyes.” Chemical Engineering Journal 345:233-241. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.03.158.
Park, Jung Hag, Abul Hussam, Pascal Couasnon, David Fritz, and Peter W. Carr. 1987. “Experimental reexamination of selected partition coefficients from Rohrschneider’s data set.” Analytical Chemistry 59 (10):1970-1976. doi: 10.1021/ac00142a016.
Parker, B.L., S.W. Chapman, and M.A. Guilbeault. 2008. “Plume persistence caused by back diffusion from thin clay layers in a sand aquifer following TCE source-zone hydraulic isolation.” Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 102 (1-2):86-104.
Payne, F.C., Quinnan J.A., and Potter S.T. 2008. Remediation Hydraulics. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Perkin-Elmer. 2020. “Liquid Scintillation Cocktails.” accessed September 10, 2020. https://www.perkinelmer.com/lab-products-and-services/application-support-knowledgebase/radiometric/liquid-scintillation-cocktails.html#:~:text=All%20liquid%20scintillation%20cocktails%20contain,able%20to%20hold%20aqueous%20samples.
Petri, Benjamin G., Richard J. Watts, Aikaterini Tsitonaki, Michelle Crimi, Neil R. Thomson, and Amy L. Teel. 2011. “Fundamentals of ISCO Using Persulfate.” In In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, edited by Michelle Crimi and Thomas J. Simpkin Robert L. Siegrist. New York, NY: Springer New York.
Philippoff, W. . 2006. “Weissenberg’s Contributions to Rheology.” In Karl Weissenberg—The 80th Birthday Celebration Essays.
Pornwongthong, P., A. Mulchandani, P.G. Gedalanga, and S. Mahendra. 2014. “Transition Metals and Organic Ligands Influence Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane.” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 173 (1):291-306.
Priddle, MW, and RE Jackson. 1991. “Laboratory Column Measurement of VOC Retardation Factors and Comparison with Field Values.” Groundwater 2 (March ):260-266.
ProSystems. 2002. “Under the Scoop: Carburetors and Concepts.” accessed May 14, 2019. https://prosystemsracing.com/carburetors-and-concepts.
Pundlik, M. D., B. Sitharaman, and Inderjit Kaur. 2001. “Gas Chromatographic Determination of 1,4-Dioxane at Low Parts-per-Million Levels in Glycols.” Journal of Chromatographic Science 39 (February):73–76.
Rafati, Amir Abbas, Ensieh Ghasemian, and Hossein Iloukhani. 2009. “Surface Tension and Surface Properties of Binary Mixtures of 1,4-Dioxane or N,N-Dimethyl Formamide with N-Alkyl Acetates.” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 54 (12):3224-3228. doi: 10.1021/je9002114.
Ramalingam, V., and A.M. Cupples. 2019. “Anaerobic 1,4-dioxane biodegradation and microbial community analysis in microcosms inoculated with soils or sediments and different electron acceptors.” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 104:4155-4170.
Rasmussen, M., A.M. Saito, M.R. Hyman, and L. Semprini. 2020. “Co-encapsulation of slow-release compounds and Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 21198 in gellan gum beads to promote the long-term aerobic cometabolic transformation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethene and 1,4-dioxane.” Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts. doi: 10.1039/c9em00607a.
Reyes, Antonio, Marta Haro, Ignacio Gascón, Héctor Artigas, and Carlos Lafuente. 2003. “Vapor−Liquid Equilibrium and Volumetric Measurements for Binary Mixtures of 1,4-Dioxane with Isomeric Chlorobutanes.” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 48 (4):887-891. doi: 10.1021/je020185k.
Riddick, J.A., W.B. Bunger, and T.K. Sakano. 1986. Organic Solvents: Physical Properties and Methods of Purification. Vol. 4th Edition. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Rittmann, Bruce E., Youneng Tang, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Yihao Luo, and Boya Wang. 2019. Synergistic Reductive Dechlorination of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane and Trichloroethene and and Aerobic Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane. edited by Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program.
Rolston, Hannah, Michael Hyman, and Lewis Semprini. 2019. ” Aerobic cometabolism of 1,4-dioxane by isobutane-utilizing microorganisms including Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain 21198 in aquifer microcosms: Experimental and modeling study.” Science of The Total Environment 694:133688.
RSC. 1992. “Union Carbide Sells Dioxane Business to Division of Ferro – Royal Society of Chemistry.” American Paint and Coatings Journal 21 (1).
Sadeghi, Venus M., Donald J. Gruber, Eric Yunker, Michelle Simon, and Doug Gustafson. 2006. “In Situ Oxidation of 1,4-Dioxane with Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide.” Fifth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, CA.
Sale, T., B. Parker, C. Newell, and J.F. Devlin. 2013. Management of contaminants stored in low permeability zones: A state-of-the-science review. In SERDP Project ER-1740, edited by Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. Arlington, Virginia.
Sandy, Tom, C.P. Leslie Grandy, Steve Meininger, and Randy Boe. 2001. “Biological Treatment of 1,4-Dioxane in Wastewater from an Integrated Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Manufacturing Facility.” Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation:88-117. doi: 10.2175/193864701785019560.
Sapphire. 2007. Voluntary Children’s Chemical Evaluation Program (VCCEP) Tiers 1, 2, and 3 Pilot Submission for 1,4-Dioxane. In Accessed February 6, 2020, edited by Sapphire Group. https://www.tera.org/Peer/VCCEP/p-Dioxane/p-Dioxane%20Submission.pdf.
Schep, Leo J., Robin J. Slaughter, Wayne A. Temple, and D. Michael G. Beasley. 2009. “Diethylene glycol poisoning.” Clinical Toxicology 47 (6):525-535. doi: 10.1080/15563650903086444.
Schneider, C.H., and C.C. Lynch. 1943. “The Ternary System Dioxane-Ethanol-Water.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 65 (6):1063-1066. doi: 10.1021/ja01246a015.
Schreir, C.G, V.M. Sadeghi, D.J. Gruber, J. Brackin, and E. Yunker. 2006. “In situ Oxidation of 1,4-Dioxane.” Fifth International Conference on Remediation of Recalcitrant Compounds, Columbus, OH.
Schüürmann, Gerrit, Ralf-Uwe Ebert, and Ralph Kühne. 2006. “Prediction of the sorption of organic compounds into soil organic matter from molecular structure.” Environmental Science & Technology 40 (22):7005-7011. doi: 10.1021/es060152f.
Sei, K., K. Miyagaki, T. Kakinoki, K. Fukugasako, D. Inoue, and M. Ike. 2013. “Isolation and characterization of bacterial strains that have high ability to degrade 1,4-dioxane as a sole carbon and energy source.” Biodegradation 24:665-674. doi: 0.1007/s10532-012-96134-1.
Sekar, R., and T.J. DiChristina. 2014. “Microbially Driven Fenton Reaction for Degradation of the Widespread Environmental Contaminant 1,4-Dioxane.” Environmental Science & Technology 48 (21):12858-12867.
Shearer, T. P., and L. G. Hunsicker. 1980. “Rapid Method for Embedding Tissues for Electron Microscopy Using 1,4-Dioxane and Polybed 812.” Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 28 (5):465–467.
Shen, WeiRong, Hong Chen, and Shanshan Pan. 2008. “Anaerobic Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane by Sludge Enriched with Iron-Reducing Microorganisms.” Bioresource Technology 99 (7):2483-2487. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.04.054.
Shields-Menard, S.A., S.D. Brown, D.M. Klingemna, K. Indest, D. Hancock, J.J. Wewalwela, W.T. French, and J.R. Donaldson. 2014. “Draft genome sequence of Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 21198.” Genome Announcement 2 (1):e00054-14. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00054-14.
Sigma. 2019. 1,4-Dioxane. Sigma Aldrich Co.
Simazaki, D., M. Asami, T. Nishimura, S. Kunikane, T. Aizawa, and Y. Magara. 2006. “Occurrence of 1, 4-dioxane and MTBE in drinking water sources in Japan.” Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 6 (2):47-53.
Simonich, Staci, S Massey, Ping Sun, Ken Casteel, Scott Dyer, Dave Wernery, Kevin Garber, Gregory Carr, and Thomas Federle. 2013. “Probabilistic Analysis of Risks to US Drinking Water Intakes from 1,4-Dioxane in Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.” Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 9 (October):554–559.
Singer, Philip C., and William B. Zilli. 1975. “Ozonation of ammonia in wastewater.” Water Research 9 (2):127-134. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(75)90001-9.
Skinner, L. , L.M. Ciuffetti, and M. Hyman. 2009. “Metabolism and cometabolism of cyclic ethers by a filamentous fungus, a Graphium sp.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75:5514-5522. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00078-09.
Smith, Brant. 2020. “Keys to Successful Treatment of 1,4-Dioxane with Klozur Persulfate (Presentation) “, April/May.
Smith, Brant, Lisa Kammer, Jim Soukup, Carey Letts, Venus Sadeghi, Paula Lyon, and Tim Pac. 2018. “Evaluation of Potassium Persulfate as a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Three Different Sites.” Eleventh International Conference on the Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Palm Springs, CA, April 2018.
Smith, E.R., and M. Wojciechowski. 1937. “Boiling point-composition diagram of the system dioxane-water.” Part of Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards 18 (Research Paper RP985):461–465.
Sock, Shawn M. 1993. “A Comprehensive Evaluation of Biodegradation as a Treatment Alternative for the Removal of 1,4-Dioxane.” Clemson University (Archived Theses. 4333).
Stefan, M.I., and J.R. Bolton. 1998. “Mechanism of the Degradation of 1,4-Dioxane in Dilute Aqueous Solution Using the UV/Hydrogen Peroxide Process.” Environmental Science & Technology 32 (11):1588-1595. doi: DOI: 10.1021/es970633m.
Stepan. 2006. Test Plan for Sodium 2-(2-Dodecyloxyethoxy) Ethyl Sulfate – Stepan Company. Washington, DC: USEPA High Production Volume Program.
Stepien, D.K., P. Diehl, J. Helm, A. Thoms, and W. Puttmann. 2014. “Fate of 14-dioxane in the aquatic environment from sewage to drinking water.” Water Research 48:406-419. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2013.09.057.
Sun, B. 2010. “Rhizosphere/Soil Microorganisms in the Phytoremediation of Biphenyl and Dioxane.” PhD Dissertation, Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen’s University.
Sun, Paul, Dan Walsh, Charlie Meyer, and Don Pickle. 2003. “The Treatment of MTBE-Contaminated Groundwater in Bioaugmented Granular Activated Carbon Beds – A Case History.” Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation:450-463. doi: 10.2175/193864703784343587.
Surprenant, Kenneth S. . 2012. Dioxane – In Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry: John Wiley and Sons.
Suthersan, S.S. 1999. In situ air sparging. In Remediation engineering: design concepts. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Tackaert, R.A., A.N. Pisarenko, E.C. Chen, A. Kolakovsky, B.M. Pecson, J.E. Drewes, R.R. Trussell, and R.S. Trussell. 2019. “Demonstrating process robustness of potable reuse trains during challenge testing with elevated levels of acetone, formaldehyde, NDMA, and 1,4-dioxane.” Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-Aqua 68 (5):313–324. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/aqua.2019.134.
Tian, Gui-Peng, Qian-Yuan Wu, Ang Li, Wen-Long Wang, and Hong-Ying Hu. 2017. “Promoted ozonation for the decomposition of 1,4-dioxane by activated carbon.” Water Supply 17 (2):613–620. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2016.071.
Torkelson, T.R., B.K.J. Leong, R.J. Kociba, W.A. Richter, and P.J. Gehring. 1974. “1,4-Dioxane. II. Results of a 2-year inhalation study in rats.” Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 30:287-298. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0041-008X(74)90100-8.
Tubiana, M., L.E. Feinendegen, C. Yang, and J.M. Kaminski. 2009. “The linear No-threshold relationship is inconsistent with radiation biologic and experimental data.” Radiology 251:13-22.
Tupa, P.R., and H. Masuda. 2018. “Draft genome sequence of a propanotroph, Rhodococcus sp. Strain ENV425, capable of degrading methyl-tert-butyl ether and N-nitrosodimethylamine.” Genome Announcement 6 (8). doi: 10.1128/genomeA.000541-18.
Tusher, T.R., T. Shimizu, C. Inoue, and M-F. Chien. 2020. “Enrichment and Analysis of Stable 1,4-dioxane-Degrading Microbial Consortia Consisting of Novel Dioxane-Degraders ” Microorganisms 8:50.
UC. 1989. Material Safety Data Sheet for UCAR Aircraft Deicing Fluid 2-D, PM-6435. Bound Brook, NJ: Union Carbide.
UN. 2003. Globally Harmonized System’s United Nations (UN).
USCG. 1999. Chemical Hazards Response Information System (Chris) Hazardous Chemical Data. edited by U.S. Coast Guard. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation.
USEPA. 1980. Part 261—Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=43a12e65fc62ad2c4af072873b86c581&mc=true&node=pt40.26.261&rgn=div5#se40.26.261_133.
USEPA. 1987. P-dioxane Health Advisory.
USEPA. 1989. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume 1. (Part A). edited by Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 1990. Method 1624 – Revision C. edited by Volatile Organic Compounds by Isotope Dilution GC/MS: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Water.
USEPA. 1991. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I – Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part B, Development of Risk-based Preliminary Remediation Goals). edited by Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 1993. Use of IRIS Values in Superfund Risk Assessment. edited by Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 1995a. Guidance for Risk Characterization. edited by Science and Policy Council. Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 1995b. Toxic Release Inventory Public Data Release 1995. Washington DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 1997. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM). edited by Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.
USEPA. 1999a. EPA Air Method, Toxic Organics-15 (TO-15): Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Air Collected in Specially-Prepared Canisters and Analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). edited by USEPA Office of Research and Development. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 1999b. Use of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Superfund, RCRA Corrective Action, and Underground Storage Tank Sites. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2000. Development Document for Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Landfills Point Source Category. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Water.
USEPA. 2001. User’s Guide for WATER9 Software. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2003a. Emergency Administrative Order On Consent Sunbeam Products. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://semspub.epa.gov/work/03/2050633.pdf.
USEPA. 2003b. Human Health Toxicity Values in Superfund Risk Assessments. edited by Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2004a. 40 CFR 302.4 Designation of Hazardous Substances. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2004-title40-vol26/pdf/CFR-2004-title40-vol26-sec302-4.pdf.
USEPA. 2004b. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I – Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part E, Supplemental Guidance for Dermal Risk Assessment (Final). edited by Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2005a. Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment [EPA Report]. edited by Risk Assessment Forum. Washington, DC.
USEPA. 2005b. Interim Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) Washington DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
USEPA. 2006. Treatment Technologies for 1,4-Dioxane. edited by Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2007. Risk Communication in Action: The Tools of Message Mapping. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2008a. Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 3—Draft. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2008-02-21/pdf/E8-3114.pdf.
USEPA. 2008b. Method 522, Determination of 1,4-Dioxane in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) with Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM). edited by USEPA Office of Research and Development. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2009. Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 3—Final edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2009-10-08/pdf/E9-24287.pdf.
USEPA. 2010. Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (CAS No.123-91-1) – In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris_drafts/recordisplay.cfm?deid=205170.
USEPA. 2011. Evaluation Report – EPA’s Voluntary Chemical Evaluation Program Did Not Achieve Children’s Health Protection Goals. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC.
USEPA. 2012a. Edition of the Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories.
USEPA. 2012b. Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems – Final Rule. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2012-05-02/pdf/2012-9978.pdf.
USEPA. 2013a. Tier 3 Toxicity Value White Paper. edited by Regional 3 Toxicity Value Workgroup: OSWER Human Health Regional Risk Assessors.
USEPA. 2013b. Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (with Inhalation Update). edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC.
USEPA. 2014a. Risk Assessment Forum White Paper: Probabilistic Risk Assessment Methods and Case Studies. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
USEPA. 2014b. Technical Fact Sheet 1,4-Dioxane. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Land and Emergency Management.
USEPA. 2015a. OSWER Technical Guide for Assessing and Mitigating the VI Pathway. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2015b. TRI Factsheet: Chemical – 1,4-DIOXANE, 000123911. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://iaspub.epa.gov/triexplorer/chemical.html?pLoc=000123911&pYear=2015&pParent=TRI&pDataSet=TRIQ1&pPrint=1.
USEPA. 2016a. EPA’s Study of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas and Its Potential Impact on Drinking Water Resources. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/hfstudy.
USEPA. 2016b. Method 624 – Purgeables by GC/MS. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Water.
USEPA. 2017a. Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 4—Final edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC.
USEPA. 2017b. NPDES Permit No. MAG910000 and NHG910000. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://www3.epa.gov/region1/npdes/remediation/FinalPermit_Rev1.pdf.
USEPA. 2017c. Scope of the Risk Evaluation for 1,4-Dioxane. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-06/documents/dioxane_scope_06-22-2017.pdf: Accessed February 6, 2020.
USEPA. 2017d. Technical Fact Sheet: 1,4-Dioxane. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-03/documents/ffrro_factsheet_contaminant_14-dioxane_january2014_final.pdf.
USEPA. 2017e. The Third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 3): Data Summary.
USEPA. 2017f. The Third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 3): Data Summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Wate.
USEPA. 2017g. USEPA National Functional Guidelines for Organic Superfund Methods Data Review. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2018a. 1,4-Dioxane Results – AEGL Program. https://www.epa.gov/aegl/14-dioxane-results-aegl-program: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2018b. Edition of the Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories Tables. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2018-03/documents/dwtable2018.pdf.
USEPA. 2018c. Method 8260D, Revision 4, June 2018, Final Update VI to the Third Edition of the Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2018d. Method 8270E, Revision 6, June 2018, Final Update VI to the Third Edition of the Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2018e. Problem Formulation of the Risk Evaluation for 1,4-Dioxane. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. Washington, DC: EPA-740-R1-7012.
USEPA. 2018f. Regional Screening Level (RSL) Resident Tapwater Table (TR=1E-06, HQ=1). edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://semspub.epa.gov/work/HQ/197434.pdf.
USEPA. 2019a. 2017 Potable Reuse Compendium. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2018-01/documents/potablereusecompendium_3.pdf: Accessed February 6, 2020.
USEPA. 2019b. 2017 TRI National Analysis. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://edap.epa.gov/public/extensions/TRINA_dashboard_2017/TRINA_dashboard_2017.html.
USEPA. 2019c. Chemistry Dashboard. edited by 4-Dioxane 1. Https://Comptox.Epa.Gov/Dashboard/Dtxsid4020533: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
USEPA. 2019d. Class V Wells for Injection of Non-Hazardous Fluids into or Above Underground Sources of Drinking Water. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/uic/class-v-wells-injection-non-hazardous-fluids-or-above-underground-sources-drinking-water: Accessed February 6, 2020.
USEPA. 2019e. Draft Risk Evaluation for 1,4-Dioxane in support of the Office of Chemical safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP). edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2019-06/documents/1_14-dioxane_draft_risk_evaluation_06-27-2019.pdf.
USEPA. 2019f. Initial List of Hazardous Air Pollutants with Modifications. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://www.epa.gov/haps/initial-list-hazardous-air-pollutants-modifications.
USEPA. 2019g. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs) – Chemical Specific Parameters. https://www.epa.gov/risk/regional-screening-levels-rsls-generic-tables: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2019h. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs) What’s New. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://www.epa.gov/risk/regional-screening-levels-rsls-whats-new.
USEPA. 2019i. Water Pollution Search by Pollutant. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC: https://echo.epa.gov/trends/loading-tool/water-pollution-search.
USEPA. 2020a. Announcement of Preliminary Regulatory Determinations for Contaminants on the Fourth Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List. edited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
USEPA. 2020b. Risk Assessment: Conducting a Human Health Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Estimation Programs Interface Suite for Microsoft Windows, v 4.11. Syracuse Research Corporation.
USGS. 1999. Ground Water and Surface Water, A Single Resource. Denver, CO: United States Geologic Survey.
Vainberg, S., K. McClay, H. Masuda, D. Root, C. Condee, G.J. Zylstra, and R.J. Steffan. 2006. “Biodegradation of Ether Pollutants by Pseudonocardia sp. Strain ENV478.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology:5218-5224.
Valvoline. 1991. Material Safety Data Sheet for Mac’s Brake and Electric Motor Cleaner 4700. Valvoline Oil Company.
Vatankhah, Hooman, Aleksandra Szczuka, William A. Mitch, Nohemi Almaraz, Jacob Brannum, and Christopher Bellona. 2019. “Evaluation of Enhanced Ozone–Biologically Active Filtration Treatment for the Removal of 1,4-Dioxane and Disinfection Byproduct Precursors from Wastewater Effluent.” Environmental Science & Technology 53 (5):2720-2730. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.8b06897.
Waldemer, R.H., and P.G. Tratnyek. 2004. The Efficient Determination of Rate Constants for Oxidations by Permanganate. Columbus, OH: Battelle Press.
Weast, R.C., and M.J. Astle. 1986. CRC Handbook of data on organic compounds, Vol. 1. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Webster, T., C. Condee, and P.B. Hatzinger. 2013. “Ex Situ Treatment of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in groundwater using a fluidized bed reactor.” Water Res. 47:811-820.
WHO. 2017. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality: Fourth Edition Incorporating the First Addendum. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Wilke, Olaf, O. Jann, and Doris Brödner. 2004. “VOC- and SVOC-Emissions from Adhesives, Floor Coverings and Complete Floor Structures.” Indoor Air 14 (S8):98–107.
Winsor, Leigh 2006. “Tissue Processing.” In In Laboratory Histopathology: A Complete Reference, 4.2-1–4.2-42. New York: Churchill-Livingstone.
Wolf, D.C., S.M. Cohen, A.R. Boobis, V.L. Dellarco, P.A. Fenner-Crisp, A. Moretto, T.P. Pastoor, R.S. Schoeny, J.G. Seed, and J.E. Doe. 2019. “Chemical carcinogenicity revisited 1: A unified theory of carcinogenicity based on contemporary knowledge.” Reg Tox Pharmacol 103:86-92.
Woodard, Steven, Thomas Mohr, and Michael G. Nickelsen. 2014. “Synthetic Media: A Promising New Treatment Technology for 1,4-Dioxane.” Remediation Journal 24 (4):27-40. doi: doi: 10.1002/rem.21402.
Wypych, George. 2001. Handbook of Solvents. Toronto, Ontario: Chemtec Publishing.
Xiong, Y., O.U. Mason, A. Lowe, Z. Zhang, C. Zhou, G. Chen, M.J. Villalonga, and Y. Tank. 2020. “Investigating promising substrates for promoting 1,4-dioxane biodegradation: effects of ethane and tetrahydrofuran on microbial consortia.” Biodegradation. doi: doi: 10.1007/s10532-020-09901-2.
Xiong, Yi, Qiao Zhang, Robert Wandell, Stefan Bresch, Huihui Wang, Bruce R. Locke, and Youneng Tang. 2019. “Synergistic 1,4-Dioxane Removal by Non-Thermal Plasma Followed by Biodegradation.” Chemical Engineering Journal 361:519-527. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.12.094.
Yamate, J., M. Tajima, W. Kudow, and S. Sannai. 1990. “Background pathology in BDF1 mice allowed to live out their life-span.” Lab Animals 24:332-340.
Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor, Sung Kyu Maeng, Takahiro Fujioka, Maria Kennedy, Zhenyu Li, and Gary Amy. 2011. “Nanofiltration vs. reverse osmosis for the removal of emerging organic contaminants in water reuse.” Desalination and Water Treatment 34 (1-3):50-56. doi: 10.5004/dwt.2011.2860.
Young, J.D., W.H. Braun, L.W. Rampy, M.B. Chenoweth, and G.E. Blau. 1977. “Pharmacokinetics of 1,4-dioxane in humans.” Toxicol. Environ. Health 3:507-520.
Young, JD, WH Braun, and PJ Gehring. 1978. “Dose-dependent fate of 1,4-dioxane in rats.” J Toxicol Environ Health A 4:709-726.
Zenker, M. J., R. C. Borden, and M. A. Barlaz. 2003. “Occurrence and treatment of 1, 4-dioxane in aqueous environments.” Environmental Engineering Science 20 (5):423-432.
Zenker, M.J., R.C. Borden, and M.A. Barlaz. 2004. “Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane Using Trickling Filter.” Journal of Environmental Engineering 130 (9):926-931. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2004)130:9(926).
Zhang, Shu, Phillip B. Gedalanga, and Shaily Mahendra. 2016. “Biodegradation Kinetics of 1,4-Dioxane in Chlorinated Solvent Mixtures.” Environmental Science & Technology Letters 50:9599–9607. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02797.
Zhang, Shu, Phillip B. Gedalanga, and Shaily Mahendra. 2017. “Advances in Bioremediation of 1,4-Dioxane-Contaminated Waters.” Journal of Environmental Management 204 (December). doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.05.033.
Zhao, L., X. Lu, A. Polasko, N.W. Johnson, Y. Miao, Z. Yand, S. Mahendra, and B. Gu. 2018. “Co-contaminant effects on 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in packed soil column flow-through systems.” Environmental Pollution 243 (A):573-581. doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.018.
Zhong, H., M.L. Brusseau, Y. Wang, N. Yan, L. Quig, and G.R. Johnson. 2015. “In-situ activation of persulfate by iron ﬁlings and degradation of 1,4-dioxane.” Water Research 83:104-111.
Bioassays are studies that determine the biological activity or toxicity of a substance by exposing either laboratory animals or cell lines to the test substance and looking for specific effects.
USEPA (2005) defines the MOA as “a sequence of key events and processes, starting with interaction of an agent with a cell, proceeding through operational and anatomical changes, and resulting in cancer formation.” Note that the MOA evaluation “is a main focus” of USEPA’s (2005) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment and is used to determine the quantitative approach for dose-response modeling at doses lower than those used in bioassays. USEPA (2005) recommends using a linear low-dose extrapolation when an agent has a direct DNA-reactive MOA or when the MOA is unknown. Conversely, USEPA (2005) recommends using a threshold model for agents that are operative through a non-DNA-reactive MOA.
Note that USEPA (USEPA 2019e) used benchmark dose results to calculate a worker-specific IUR that applies to a work schedule of 8 hours per day, 5 days per week, whereas (USEPA 2013b) derived an IUR for evaluating continuous daily exposures. As a result, the IURs reported in USEPA (USEPA 2019e) and (USEPA 2013b) are not directly comparable. However, the benchmark dose modeling results are directly comparable.
Health Canada (2018) considered routes of exposure to be significant if they accounted for at least 10% of the drinking water consumption level (i.e., 10% of 1.5 L).